Semirechie ("Seven Rivers") region is located on the territory of modern day Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
The name is derrived from the seven rivers flowing into the lake Balhash.
Formation of elements of statehood of the people of Semirechie relates to the
middle of the 1st millennium A.D. Ties were established with Byzantium,
India, China, Eastern Europe.|
From the 7th century Semirechie, along with other lands from China to the Syrdarya river, became Turkic possessions. Turks became actively involved in international silk trade, and also became intermediaries between China and Western states.
During 7th - 8th centuries, valleys of rivers Talas, Chu and Ili were intensively colonized by Sogdians, which to the establishment there of tens of cities and fortified settlements.
In the 7th century, the strongest tribe, the Tugreshs seized power. During the second half of the 8th century, the supremacy transferred over to the Karluk people. At the end of the 8th century, the Arabs were in the process of pushing the Karluks out of Ferghana. But in the north-west, in Semirechye the Arabs were stopped at the battle at Talas (in 751 A.D.) and did not advance any further to the east. Mass migration of Sogdians during this period promoted further grouth of cities and settlements in the Semirechie region. During this time, monetary circulation begins and develops in the cities of Semirechie.
The date of production of the first coins on the territory of Semirechie cannot be determined precisely. Cast bronze coins were issued on the territory from Middle Syrdarya to the Irtysh River. The major locations of finds of Tugresh coins, and therefore the centers of their production were settlements of Suyab, Navekat and Taraz.
The state, which formed in the middle of the 10th century on the territory of Semirechie and Eastern Turkestan, and having acquired the name of "Qarakhanids" by science, adopted Islam as the state religion. The Qarakhanids adopted the organization of monetary economy and the technology of coin production, which by that time was affirmed by the entire Islamic East. The coins of the Chinese type started to get pushed out of circulation in favor of copper fals and silver dirhams. With that, early medieval monetary complex of Semirechie, having consisted of cast bronze coins, seized to exist.
* While compiling the section "History of Semirechie", some material from the book "Early Medieval Monetary Complex of Semirechie" by A. Kamyshev /Bishkek 2002/ was used.
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